Regulation


Mobile Source Regulatory Comparison: U.S. EPA/California vs. European Union

December 2014
Regulatory Program U.S. EPA/California European Union

Fuels

15 ppm sulfur limit for diesel; moving to 10 ppm sulfur average for gasoline

10 ppm sulfur limits for both gasoline and diesel

Light-Duty Vehicles

Very stringent limits for HC, CO, NOx (full useful life out to 240K km)

Stringent standards for HC, CO, NOx (full useful life out to 160K km)

 

Fuel neutral standards started with EPA NLEV, Tier 2, and CARB LEV I

Different standards for gasoline and diesel vehicles (less stringent for diesel vehicles)

 

Same emission limits for light-duty vehicles through 4545 kg GVW with fleet average compliance flexibility

Different emission limits for different weight classes of light-duty vehicles; no fleet averaging

 

Stringent mass-based standards for particle emissions (CA LEV III has most stringent PM limits)

Very stringent number-based standards for particles (diesel with Euro 5 and GDI with Euro 6c)

 

Very stringent evaporative emission standards and limits capture all sources of VOC losses, including refueling losses (ORVR), running losses, multiple-day parking events, and permeation; plus minimize short-term parking emissions

Evaporative standards only capture short-term diurnal VOC losses

 

Multiple test cycles designed to capture real vehicle driving

Current test cycle not effective at capturing real-world driving emissions; adding real-world focus to Euro 6c; eventually moving to WLTP cycle

 

Long history/experience with compliance programs to ensure emission reductions are delivered for in-use vehicles; recall authority to resolve chronic emission problems

No structured compliance effort; no recall authority; real-world driving includes in-service compliance component

 

GHG limits based on vehicle footprint

GHG limits based on vehicle mass

Motorcycles

Large differences between motorcycle and car emission limits; includes diurnal evaporative emission limit

Stringent future standards in place that close the gap between motorcycle and car emission limits; future standards include diurnal evaporative emission limit

Heavy-Duty Vehicles

Stringent limits for HC, CO, NOx

Stringent limits for HC, CO, NOx

 

Stringent mass-based standards for particle emissions

Very stringent number-based standard for particles (Euro VI diesel)

 

Transient cycle includes cold and hot starts; NTE limits

Moved to WHTC transient cycle with cold and hot starts with Euro VI; NTE limits

 

In-use compliance program using PEMS started with 2007 limits; focused on NTE events – with engine map carve outs; recall authority 

In-use compliance program using PEMS started with Euro VI; focused on WHTC work-based window – no engine map carve outs; no recall authority

 

GHG limits introduced for 2014

No GHG standards; will begin monitoring program

Off-Road Diesel Engines

Largely harmonized limits for HC, CO, NOx, and PM, but covers wider range of engine power ratings

Largely harmonized limits for HC,CO, NOx, and PM, but no limits for small and very large diesel engines

 

Transient and steady-state test cycles (harmonized)

Transient and steady-state test cycles (harmonized)

 

No activity currently focused on developing a Tier V proposal but continued harmonization in this sector could cause movement toward the Euro Stage V proposal

Stage V proposal released that includes PN limit for 19-560 kW engines, railcar engines, and inland marine engines 300 kW and larger; Stage V proposal also includes emission limit on small and large nonroad engines

 

No in-use testing currently required; EPA surveillance testing with recall authority is available in this sector

Stage V proposal includes an undefined, in-use emissions testing requirement